Cam(bio)2 is aproject evaluation methodology for small associated farms that looks at how their agro-ecological practices aid in mitigating climate change.
Thus, they achieve access to participate in the voluntary carbon market, where economic sectors committed to the environment can reduce their emissions by investing in these projects while at the same time supporting the development of the families and communities involved.
Cam(bio)2 promotes agro-ecological development as an option for small-farmer organisations within the same region, to promote the generation of new chains that would allow access to food, increase productivity and generate spaces for participation under equal opportunities for youths and women in the productive process.
There are three strategies in agro-ecology that aid in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which are put into practice by Cam(bio)2 in their projects:
- Management of the natural fertility of the soil and the use of organic fertilizers that reduce the emission of gasses such as nitrousoxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas(GHG).
- Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in the soil and trees that accompany the system.
- Lowered emission rates from reduced use of external inputs.
The Educational Corporation For Costa Rican Development (CEDECO) is a Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) working for the last three decades in several countries on the American continent together with campesino familiesto build options for development in rural areas.
Thus, studies were carried out to establish the environmental services generated by these small farms, based on the determination of carbon stored in the soil and biomass, establishing the capacity for carbon accumulation, soil emissions prevented through efficient nitrogenous fertilisation, as well as socio-economic studies of the families and regions.
After years of scientific study it was possible to confirm that the work done by ecologicallyaware small farmers on their plots constitutes a valid alternative for mitigating climate change due to the fact that these farms sequester carbon, reduce green house gasses and increase energy-use efficiency, besides conserving the zone’s biodiversity.
In 2010, the Cam(bio)2 Standard was finally constituted, together with its respective seal: Agricultores del Clima (Climate Farmers), which accredits the agro-ecological farms as generators of environmental services.
THE CAM(BIO)2 STANDARD
The Cam(bio)2 Standard applies in Latin America, where we currently have projects underway in Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, Cuba and Brazil, in different crops, such as coffee –in most of the cases- and others such as cacao, vegetables, citrus, bananas and sugar cane.
Although there are different systems of standards already established for organic production (NOP-USDA, JAS and European Union), these do not take into consideration a detailed environmental evaluation or quantification of environmental services.
The Cam(bio)2 Standard is also an option so that private enterprise and civil society interested in mitigating their emissions can support regions of agro-ecological production in developing countries, through their environmental services, with the certainty that they have made a bona fide investment of their funds.
The new payment scheme for environmental services that we have proposed integrates not only the mitigation but also environmental and social values calculated on an index that estimates the value to be paid for a “mitigation bond”. The index includes the following values:
- Carbon stored in the soil.
- Carbon stored in biomass.
- Direct emissions from fertilisation.
- Energy efficiency of the production.
The projects applying the Cam(bio)2 methodology may opt for a verification of their efforts, carried out by a third party entity. Currently, BCSÖkoGarantie is theinternational certifier responsible for verifying compliance of the criteria under this standard and of the values of the environmental services to finally certify the projects.
Cam(bio)2 is also responsible for verifying that the group of growers effect an investment appropriate to their needsfrom the payment that they receive for their environmental services, in support of projects and regional development, in order to improve their production systems and indirectly improve their quality of life.
STRUCTURE OF THE CAM(BIO)2 METHODOLOGY
Plots are selected for monitoring to carry out Baseline determinations, where we calculate:
Hivos is an international organization that seeks new solutions to persistent global problems. With smart projects oppose discrimination, inequality, abuse of power and the unsustainable use of the resources of our planet. Its main objective is to achieve structural change. That's why working with innovative companies, citizens and their organizations to achieve sustainable economies and inclusive societies.
We Effect is a non-profit organization without political or religious affiliation organization. It is composed of some sixty companies and organizations, which have their origin in the Swedish cooperative movement.
Supports cooperatives and organized groups of popular sectors with tools to fight poverty and injustice based on their own efforts.
BREAD FOR THE WORLD (Brot fuer die welt)
Protestant Development Service considers itself as part of the Christian community worldwide. We cooperate with churches and church works globally and help take our responsibility to work within the ecumenical networks.
Bread for the World provides support in many countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America to partner organizations, which educate the public both about the importance of a healthy, balanced diet and at your pocket, as well as on the needs of nutrients, cultivation of suitable plants, care of resources and the use of natural fertilizers. The greatest possible number of people must learn to produce healthy food. This applies especially to the female part of the population, as they are almost always women dealing with food.
The methodology has interested international institutions such as Gold Standard and FairTrade that validate the possibilities for integrating criteria Cam(Bio)2 in its standards.
So since 2012, Cam(Bio)2 is part of pilot research projects Gold Standard (GS), in order to develop a protocol for Sustainable Agriculture adapted to the climate (ASAC or CSA acronym) to improve compensation instruments for sustainable agriculture developed by organizations linked to organic and fair trade.
Gold Standard already has experience in validation of carbon credits on forests and clean energy and now starts searching for tools to validate agriculture.
The methodology was applied in Nicaragua, a conventional cooperative and a orgánica..Ambas whose main coffee crop which associated with other products on a small scale.
Cooperative organic José Alfredo Zeledon (JAZ) is located in San Juan del Río Coco in Nueva Segovia, Nicaragua and the Cooperative conventional production, Lozahoren, located in Dipilto, Department of Madriz.
It is important to stress that the process developed in Nicaragua with Gold Standard has served to clarify the methodology used by the Change2 of CEDECO project that has always sought recognition of the services provided by sustainable environment and women farmers of our continent.
CeroCO2 is an initiative that proposes concrete actions for climate care, facilitating and promoting the involvement of all stakeholders.
CeroCO2 born in 2005, and is currently promoted by the Spanish NGO ECODES, its mission is to promote the greatest number of people and organizations calculate and reduce their carbon footprint.
Since 2010, the alliance with Cam(Bio)2 is created to provide service to organizations and companies to determine their carbon footprint, and also to implement measures and emissions reduction.
Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL)
FiBL is a nonprofit, independent research institute with the goal of advancing cutting-edge science in the field of organic agriculture. FiBL research team works together with farmers to develop innovative and cost-effective solutions to increase agricultural productivity without ever losing sight of environmental, health and socio-economic impacts. Alongside practical research, FiBL gives high priority to the transfer of knowledge to agricultural practice through advisory work, training and conferences. FiBL has offices in Switzerland, Germany and Austria, and numerous projects and initiatives in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa.
BCS ÖKOGARANTIE (BCS)
BCS is an independent and private control, which certifies organic products worldwide under various legal standards and private standards.
As a watchdog, BCS has around the world with more than 450,000 farmers and about 1000 processors and importers and exporters. Among the BCS certified companies include many of the leaders in the European market.
Currently BCS ÖkoGarantie (link), is the international certification responsible for verifying compliance with the criteria of the standard Cam(Bio)2 and the values of service to the environment to finally certify the projects.